Note

  1. Please report issues with the manual on the GitHub page.

  2. Please cite SUEWS with proper information from our Zenodo page.

16. References

J11

Järvi L, Grimmond CSB & Christen A (2011) The Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS): Evaluation in Los Angeles and Vancouver. J. Hydrol. 411, 219-237.

W16

Ward HC, Kotthaus S, Järvi L and Grimmond CSB 2016: Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS): development and evaluation at two UK sites. Urban Climate. 18, 1-32 doi: 10.1016/j.uclim.2016.05.001

G91

Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1991) An Evaporation-Interception Model for Urban Areas. Water Resour. Res. 27, 1739-1755.

O2003

Offerle B, Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (2003) Parameterization of Net All-Wave Radiation for Urban Areas. J. Appl. Meteorol. 42, 1157-1173.

L2011

Loridan T, CSB Grimmond, BD Offerle, DT Young, T Smith, L Järvi, F Lindberg (2011) Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS): longwave radiation parameterization & seasonality related developments. Journal of Applied Meteorology & Climatology 50, 185-202, doi: 10.1175/2010JAMC2474.1

lucy

Allen L, F Lindberg, CSB Grimmond (2011) Global to city scale model for anthropogenic heat flux, International Journal of Climatology, 31, 1990-2005.

lucy2

Lindberg F, Grimmond CSB, Nithiandamdan Y, Kotthaus S, Allen L (2013) Impact of city changes and weather on anthropogenic heat flux in Europe 1995–2015, Urban Climate,4,1-13 paper

I11

Iamarino M, Beevers S & Grimmond CSB (2011) High-resolution (space, time) anthropogenic heat emissions: London 1970-2025. International J. of Climatology. 32, 1754-1767.

G91OHM

Grimmond CSB, Cleugh HA & Oke TR (1991) An objective urban heat storage model and its comparison with other schemes. Atmos. Env. 25B, 311-174.

GO99QS

Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1999a) Heat storage in urban areas: Local-scale observations and evaluation of a simple model. J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 922-940.

GO2002

Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (2002) Turbulent Heat Fluxes in Urban Areas: Observations and a Local-Scale Urban Meteorological Parameterization Scheme (LUMPS) J. Appl. Meteorol. 41, 792-810.

AnOHM17

Sun T, Wang ZH, Oechel W & Grimmond CSB (2017) The Analytical Objective Hysteresis Model (AnOHM v1.0): Methodology to Determine Bulk Storage Heat Flux Coefficients. Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. doi: 10.5194/gmd-2016-300.

OGF2005

Offerle B, CSB Grimmond, K Fortuniak (2005) Heat storage & anthropogenic heat flux in relation to the energy balance of a central European city center. International J. of Climatology. 25: 1405–1419 doi: 10.1002/joc.1198

G86

Grimmond CSB, Oke TR and Steyn DG (1986) Urban water-balance 1. A model for daily totals. Water Resour Res 22: 1397-1403.

Leena2014

Järvi L, Grimmond CSB, Taka M, Nordbo A, Setälä H & Strachan IB (2014) Development of the Surface Urban Energy and Water balance Scheme (SUEWS) for cold climate cities, Geosci. Model Dev. 7, 1691-1711, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1691-2014.

CG2001

Cleugh HA & Grimmond CSB (2001) Modelling regional scale surface energy exchanges and CBL growth in a heterogeneous, urban-rural landscape. Bound.-Layer Meteor. 98, 1-31.

Shiho2015

Onomura S, Grimmond CSB, Lindberg F, Holmer B & Thorsson S (2015) Meteorological forcing data for urban outdoor thermal comfort models from a coupled convective boundary layer and surface energy balance scheme Urban Climate,11, 1-23 doi:10.1016/j.uclim.2014.11.001

FL2008

Lindberg F, Holmer B & Thorsson S (2008) SOLWEIG 1.0 – Modelling spatial variations of 3D radiant fluxes and mean radiant temperature in complex urban settings. International Journal of Biometeorology 52, 697–713.

FL2011

Lindberg F & Grimmond C (2011) The influence of vegetation and building morphology on shadow patterns and mean radiant temperature in urban areas: model development and evaluation. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 105:3, 311-323.

Ko17

Kokkonen TV, Grimmond CSB, Räty O, Ward HC, Christen A, Oke TR, Kotthaus S & Järvi L (in review) Sensitivity of Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) to downscaling of reanalysis forcing data.

Best2014

Best MJ & Grimmond CSB (2014) Importance of initial state and atmospheric conditions for urban land surface models’ performance. Urban Climate 10: 387-406. doi: 10.1016/j.uclim.2013.10.006.

D74

Dyer AJ (1974) A review of flux-profile relationships. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 7, 363-372.

VUH85

Van Ulden AP & Holtslag AAM (1985) Estimation of atmospheric boundary layer parameters for boundary layer applications. J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 24, 1196-1207.

CN1988

Campbell GS & Norman JM (1998) Introduction to Environmental Biophysics. Springer Science, US.

B71

Businger JA, Wyngaard JC, Izumi Y & Bradley EF (1971) Flux-Profile Relationships in the Atmospheric Surface Layer. J. Atmos. Sci., 28, 181–189.

Ka09

Kawai T, Ridwan MK & Kanda M (2009) Evaluation of the simple urban energy balance model using selected data from 1-yr flux observations at two cities. J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim. 48, 693-715.

VG00

Voogt JA & Grimmond CSB (2000) Modeling surface sensible heat flux using surface radiative temperatures in a simple urban terrain. J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 1679-1699.

Ka07

Kanda M, Kanega M, Kawai T, Moriwaki R & Sugawara H (2007). Roughness lengths for momentum and heat derived from outdoor urban scale models. J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim. 46, 1067-1079.

GO99

Grimmond CSB & Oke TR (1999) Aerodynamic properties of urban areas derived from analysis of surface form. J. Appl. Meteorol. 38, 1262-1292.

Mc98

MacDonald RW, Griffiths RF & Hall DJ (1998) An improved method for estimation of surface roughness of obstacle arrays. Atmos. Env. 32, 1857-1864.

FN78

Falk J & Niemczynowicz J, (1978) Characteristics of the above ground runoff in sewered catchments, in Urban Storm Drainage, edited by Helliwell PR, Pentech, London

Ha79

Halldin S, Grip H & Perttu K. (1979) Model for energy exchange of a pine forest canopy. In: Halldin S (Ed.), Comparison of Forest Water and Energy Exchange Models. International Society of Ecological Modeling

CW86

Calder IR and Wright IR (1986) Gamma Ray Attenuation Studies of Interception From Sitka Spruce: Some Evidence for an Additional Transport Mechanism. Water Resour. Res., 22(3), 409–417.

Ok87

Oke TR (1987) Boundary Layer Climates. Routledge, London, UK

Br03

Breuer L, Eckhardt K and Frede H-G (2003) Plant parameter values for models in temperate climates. Ecol. Model. 169, 237-293.

Ja76

Jarvis PG (1976) The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B., 273, 593-610.

Au74

Auer AH (1974) The rain versus snow threshold temperatures. Weatherwise, 27, 67.

SV06

Sailor DJ and Vasireddy C (2006) Correcting aggregate energy consumption data account for variability in local weather. Environ. Modell. Softw. 21, 733-738.

Ko14

Konarska J, Lindberg F, Larsson A, Thorsson S and Holmer B (2014) Transmissivity of solar radiation through crowns of single urban trees—application for outdoor thermal comfort modelling. Theor Appl Climatol 117:363–376.

Re90

Reindl DT, Beckman WA and Duffie JA (1990) Diffuse fraction correlation. Sol Energy 45:1–7.

LG2012

Loridan T and Grimmond CSB (2012) Characterization of energy flux partitioning in urban environments: links with surface seasonal properties. J. of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 51,219-241 doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-11-038.1

H1988

Högström U (1988) Non-dimensional wind and temperature profiles in the atmospheric surface layer: A re-evaluation. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 42, 55–78.

Kent2017a

Kent CW, CSB Grimmond, J Barlow, D Gatey, S Kotthaus, F Lindberg, CH Halios 2017a: Evaluation of urban local-scale aerodynamic parameters: implications for the vertical profile of wind and source areas Boundary Layer Meteorology 164,183–213 doi: 10.1007/s10546-017-0248-z

Kent2017b

Kent CW, S Grimmond, D Gatey 2017b: Aerodynamic roughness parameters in cities: inclusion of vegetation Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics doi: 10.1016/j.jweia.2017.07.016

S2000

Schmid HP, Grimmond CSB, Cropley F, Offerle B, Su H (2000) Measurements of CO2 and energy fluxes over a mixed hardwood forest in the mid-westerm United States. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 103, 357-374.

R95

Ruimy A, Jarvis PG, Baldocchi DD, Saugier B (1995) CO2 Fluxes over Plant Canopies and Solar Radiation: A Review. Advances in Ecological Research, 26.

SL04

Sailor DJ, Lu L (2004) A top-down methodology for developing diurnal and seasonal anthropogenic heating profiles for urban areas. Atmospheric Environment. 38, 2737-2648.

B2017

Bellucco V, Marras S, Grimmond CSB, Jarvi L, Sirca C, Spano D (2017) Modelling the biogenic CO2 exchange in urban and non-urban ecosystems through the assessment of light-response curve parameters. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 236, 113-122.

FWC2002

Flanagan LB, Wever LA, Carlson PJ (2002) Seasonal and interannual variation in carbon dioxide exchange and carbon balance in a northern temperate grassland. Global Change Biology. 8, 599-615.

J12

Järvi L, Nordbo A, Junninen H, Riikonen A, Moilanen J, Nikinmaa E, Vesala T (2012) Seasonal and annual variation of carbon dioxide surface fluxes in Helsinki, Finland, in 2006-2010. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 8475-8489.

B05

Brutsaert, W. (2005), Hydrology: an introduction, Cambridge Univ Pr, Cambridge.

HF07

Harman IN, Finnigan JJ (2007) A simple uni ed theory for flow in the canopy and roughness sublayer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol 123(2):339–363

HF08

Harman, IN, Finnigan, JJ (2008) Scalar concentration profiles in the canopy and roughness sublayer. Boundary-layer meteorol, 129(3), 323–351.

T19

Theeuwes NE, Ronda RJ, Harman IN, Christen A, Grimmond CSB (2019) Parametrizing Horizontally Averaged Wind and Temperature Profiles in the Urban Roughness Sublayer. Boundary-Layer Meteorol, 173: 321. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-019-00472-1

J19

Järvi, L., Havu, M., Ward, H. C., Bellucco, V., McFadden, J. P., Toivonen, T., et al. (2019). Spatial modeling of local‐scale biogenic and anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in Helsinki. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018JD029576